Linux servers Definitions

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  • A

    Andrew

    Andrew was a joint project between Carnegie-Mellon University and IBM to set up a distributed computing environment on the CMU campus.

  • B

    bash (Bourne Again Shell)

    Bash (Bourne Again Shell ) is the free version of the Bourne shell distributed with Linux and GNU operating systems.

  • Beowulf

    Beowulf is an approach to building a supercomputer as a cluster of commodity off-the-shelf personal computers, interconnected with a local area network technology like Ethernet, and running programs written for parallel processing.

  • blade server

    A blade server, sometimes referred to as a high-density server, is a compact device containing a computer used to manage and distribute data in a collection of computers and systems, called a network.

  • bogomips

    Bogomips is a measurement provided in the Linux operating system that indicates in a relative way how fast the computer processor runs.

  • boot loader (boot manager)

    A boot loader, also called a boot manager, is a small program that places the operating system (OS) of a computer into memory...

  • Bourne shell

    The Bourne shell is the original UNIX shell (command execution program, often called a command interpreter) that was developed at AT&T. Named for its developer, Stephen Bourne, the Bourne shell is also known by its program name, "sh". The shell prompt (character displayed to indicate readiness for input) used is the "$" symbol. The Bourne shell family includes the Bourne, Korn shell, bash, and zsh shells.

  • BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)

    BSD (originally: Berkeley Software Distribution) refers to the particular version of the UNIX operating system that was developed at and distributed from the University of California at Berkeley.

  • C

    chmod (change mode)

    In a UNIX-based operating system, chmod (change mode) is a command used by a file owner or administrator to change the definition of access permissions to a file or set of files.

  • CICS (Customer Information Control System)

    CICS (Customer Information Control System) is an online transaction processing (OLTP) program from IBM that, together with the COBOL programming language, has formed over the past several decades the most common set of tools for building customer transaction applications in the world of large enterprise mainframe computing.

  • compaction

    In a data center, compaction is the reduction or consolidation of hardware to make better use of physical floor space.

  • computer-intensive

    Computer-intensive is a term that applies to any computing application that requires the resources of a lot of computers, such as grid computing.

  • COTS (commercial off-the-shelf)

    COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) describes ready-made products that can easily be obtained.

  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS

    COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS are abbreviations that describe pre-packaged software or hardware purchase alternatives.

  • CRON script

    A CRON script is a list of one or more commands to a computer operating system or application server that are to be executed at a specified time.

  • crontab

    crontab is a UNIX command that creates a table or list of commands, each of which is to be executed by the operating system at a specified time.

  • Cygwin

    Cygwin is an open source collection of tools that allows Unix or Linux applications to be compiled and run on a Windows operating system from within a Linux-like interface.

  • D

    Debian

    Debian is a popular and freely-available computer operating system that uses the Linux kernel and other program components obtained from the GNU project.

  • distribution

    In marketing, distribution is the process of moving a product from its manufacturing source to its customers. In computer software, distribution is the phase that follows packaging.

  • DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device)

    DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) is a Linux-based software component that facilitates the replacement of shared storage systems by networked mirroring. DRBD makes it possible to maintain consistency of data among multiple systems in a network. DRBD also ensures high availability (HA) for Linux applications... (Continued)

  • F

    Fedora

    Fedora is a popular open source Linux-based operating system.

  • G

    GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment)

    GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment, pronounced gah-NOHM) is a graphical user interface (GUI) and set of computer desktop applications for users of the Linux computer operating system.

  • GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL)

    The GNU General Public License, often shortened to GNU GPL (or simply GPL), lists terms and conditions for copying, modifying and distributing free software.

  • GNU Linux

    The GNU Linux project was created for the development of a Unix-like operating system that comes with source code that can be copied, modified, and redistributed... (Continued)

  • gzip (GNU zip)

    Gzip (GNU zip) is a free and open source algorithm for file compression. The software is overseen by the GNU project.... (Continued)

  • H

    hardware clustering

    Hardware clustering (sometimes called operating system clustering) is a hardware-based method of turning multiple servers into a cluster (a group of servers that acts like a single system).

  • Heartbeat

    Heartbeat is a program that runs specialized scripts automatically whenever a system is initialized or rebooted. Originally designed for two-node Linux-based clusters, Heartbeat is extensible to larger configurations... (Continued)

  • high-performance computing (HPC)

    High-performance computing (HPC) is the use of parallel processing for running advanced application programs efficiently, reliably and quickly. The term applies especially to systems that function above a teraflop or 1012 floating-point operations per second... (Continued)

  • HP 9000

    The HP 9000 is a line of UNIX-based business servers from Hewlett-Packard (HP) with server models that span enterprise applications from the "entry-level" (branch or department-level computers, Web hosting servers, and so forth) through the midrange with needs for handling advanced enterprise resource planning (ERP) and analytical customer resource management (CRM) up to its high-end servers for very computing-intensive applications.

  • HP-UX

    HP-UX is the UNIX-based operating system for the HP 9000 series of business servers from Hewlett-Packard.

  • I

    indemnification

    In service level agreements (SLAs) and other legal contracts such as end-user license agreements (EULAs), indemnification is the part of an agreement that provides for one party to bear the monetary costs, either directly or by reimbursement, for losses incurred by a second party.

  • infrastructure (IT infrastructure)

    Infrastructure is the foundation or framework that supports a system or organization.

  • intelligent power management (IPM)

    Intelligent Power Management (IPM) is a combination of hardware and software that optimizes the distribution and use of electrical power in computer systems and data centers. While the installation of IPM involves up-front cost and ongoing maintenance, the technology can save money in the long term as a result of reduced electric bills, reduced downtime and prolonged hardware life... (Continued)

  • K

    kernel

    The kernel is the essential center of a computer operating system (OS).

  • kernel panic

    A kernel panic is a computer error from which the operating system (OS) cannot quickly or easily recover. The term applies primarily to Unix-based systems and to Mac OS X... (Continued)

  • kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM)

    Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) is a free, open source virtualization architecture for Linux distributions.

  • L

    Linux distros (Linux distribution)

    A Linux distribution -- often shortened to "Linux distro" -- is a version of the open source Linux operating system that is packaged with other components, such as an installation programs, management tools and additional software such as the KVM hypervisor.

  • Linux kernel panic

    Linux kernel panic occurs when the operating system discovers a potentially fatal error that affects the Linux kernel.

  • Linux operating system

    Linux is a Unix-like, open source and community-developed operating system for computers, servers, mainframes, mobile devices and embedded devices.

  • Linux stream

    A Linux stream is information traveling in a Linux shell from one process to another via a pipe, or from one file to another via a redirect.

  • Linux swappiness

    Linux swappiness is the rate at which a Linux platform's kernel moves pages into and out of active memory.

  • logical volume management (LVM)

    Logical volume management (LVM), a form of storage virtualization, offers system administrators a more flexible approach to managing disk storage space than traditional partitioning.

  • Logwatch

    Logwatch is a log analysis program that parses through system logs and generates periodic reports based on criteria specified by the user. These reports are generated immediately after Logwatch has run (normally every night), and can be transmitted by e-mail to a network administrator.

  • P

    pizza box server

    The term "pizza box server" refers to the shape of a computer server enclosed in a rectangular and horizontally-arranged chassis and often installed in a rack with similar servers.

  • Puppy Linux

    Puppy Linux is a compact version of Linux, an operating system (OS) that provides computer users with a free or low-cost alternative to Unix. Puppy Linux is one of several similar OSs, all of which together make up a group called skinny Linux... (Continued)

  • R

    real-time operating system (RTOS)

    A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system that guarantees a certain capability within a specified time constraint. For example, an operating system might be designed to ensure that a certain object was available for a robot on an assembly line. In what is usually called a "hard" real-time operating system, if the calculation could not be performed for making the object available at the designated time, the operating system would terminate with a failure. In a "soft" real-time operating system, the assembly line would continue to function but the production output might be lower as objects failed to appear at their designated time, causing the robot to be temporarily unproductive.

  • Red Hat

    Red Hat is a leading software company in the business of assembling open source components for the Linux operating system and related programs into a distribution package that can easily be ordered and implemented.

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL)

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a distribution of the Linux operating system developed for the business market... (Continued)

  • Red Hat Satellite

    Red Hat Satellite is an IT infrastructure management tool primarily used to monitor and manage Red Hat Enterprise Linux environments.

  • RPM Package Manager (Red-hat Package Manager)

    RPM Package Manager (also known simply as RPM), originally called the Red-hat Package Manager, is a program for installing, uninstalling, and managing software packages in Linux. RPM was developed on the basis of the Linux Standard Base (LSB). In latter-day usage, the "RPM" portion of this term arises from the fact that .rpm is the default extension for files used by the program.

  • rsync

    Rsync is a free software utility for Unix- and Linux-like systems that copies files and directories from one host to another. Rsync is available on most Linux distributions by default.

  • runlevel

    A runlevel is a Linux operating state that determines which programs can execute when the operating system restarts.

  • S

    SELinux (Security-Enhanced Linux)

    SELinux, or Security-Enhanced Linux, is a part of the Linux security kernel that acts as a protective agent on servers.

  • server blade

    A server blade is a thin, modular electronic circuit board containing one, two, or more microprocessors and memory, that is intended for a single, dedicated application (such as serving Web pages) and that can be easily inserted into a blade server, which is a space-saving rack with many similar servers. One product offering, for example, makes it possible to install up to 280 blade server modules vertically in multiple racks or rows of a single floor-standing cabinet. Blade servers, which share a common high-speed bus, are designed to create less heat and thus save energy costs as well as space.

  • shell

    Shell is a UNIX term for the interactive user interface with an operating system.

  • shell script

    A shell script is a text file that contains a sequence of commands for a UNIX-based operating system.

  • single point of failure (SPOF)

    A single point of failure (SPOF) is a potential risk posed by a flaw in the design, implementation or configuration of a circuit or system in which one fault or malfunction causes an entire system to stop operating.

  • SuSE

    SuSE (pronounced soo'-sah) is a German Linux distribution provider and business unit of Novell, Inc.

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES)

    SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux-based server operating system created and maintained by the German-based organization, SUSE.

  • SUSE Manager

    SUSE Manager is an open source infrastructure management tool for Linux systems.

  • T

    tin whiskers

    Tin whiskers are individual crystals of tin that grow spontaneously from a tinned surface, usually as a result of stress of some sort... (Continued)

  • U

    Ubuntu

    Ubuntu (pronounced oo-BOON-too) is an open source Debian-based Linux distribution. Sponsored by Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu is considered a good distribution for beginners. The operating system is intended primarily for personal computers (PCs) but can also be used on servers. The word "ubuntu" is from the African Zulu language and translates as "humanity to others." (Continued...)

  • Unix

    Unix -- often spelled UNIX, especially as an official trademark -- is a multi-user operating system designed for flexibility and adaptability.

  • Uptime Institute, Inc.

    The Uptime Institute, Inc. is a consortium of companies devoted to maximizing efficiency and uptime in data centers and IT (information technology) organizations... (Continued)

  • Y

    Yellowdog Updater, Modified (YUM)

    Yellowdog Update, Modified (YUM) is a program that manages installation, updates and removal for Red Hat package manager (RPM) systems. YUM allows the user to update groups of machines without having to update each RPM separately.

  • Yet another Setup Tool (YaST)

    YaST handles much of the administration load, offers a simple graphical interface and sets up setting system parameters easily.

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