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'Cat' is where it's at

Two site experts give advice for using a cat -- the cat command, that is -- at your computer.

You may not have a furry animal at home purring atop your monitor, but here's an instance where you might want...

to keep a cat near your computer. A user recently asked us for more information about the "cat" command. Abbreviated from the word "concatenate," which means to link things together, cat is used in Linux to link file contents and output them for viewing or printing. Here, two of our resident experts, Nigel McFarlane and Kenneth Milberg, explain how cat works, and how you can put this simple, powerful command to work for you.

Nigel McFarlane

Nigel McFarlane explains how "cat" works

The simplest explanation [of what happens when you type this command] doesn't involve a GUI desktop. Imagine you are working at the console (the monitor and keyboard directly connected to the Unix/Linux box). In that case, you might see a plain, 25x80 character mode screen instead of some GUI desktop.

Before you type "cat," there is already a program running. It's the shell, usually called "bash" or "ksh." The shell is smart about terminals/keyboards. It can read keystrokes and write to the terminal. It uses the terminfo or termcap databases supplied with Linux so that many types of terminal can be used. Compare that with DOS, which only supports PC consoles. Most Linux boxes have PC consoles (or no console), but technically anything from a VT100 to a WYSE terminal and beyond is possible. Linux thinks in terms of terminals rather than monitors, because in the past, the screen and keyboard were molded together into the one unit. Only the very earliest PC's were like that. Most PC's now have separate keyboards and monitors.

Most Linux programs, including shells, can send or receive bytes through three standard outlets. They're called "stdin" (standard input), "stdout" (standard output) and "stderr" (standard error). They're basic programmer concepts from the C language. When bytes are read or written to one of these, the Linux kernel sends the bytes to the hardware or to another program. For hardware, a special file called a device file is used. There's one device file per physical terminal (monitor) attached.

For the shell, outlets stdin, stdout and stderr are connected to the terminal device. The user hits a key, the shell reads it from stdin, and the shell prints it to stdout so you can see it's been hit. So a shell is pretty close to DOS, except there's a device file and the kernel between it and the monitor. Under DOS there's nothing between except a trivial driver.

When you type "cat," the shell starts up a new program (the concatenate program). It waits for that program to finish, and does nothing until then. That new program has the same stdin, stdout and stderr as the shell. The first thing cat does is look at the filename passed to it. It opens a new inlet (like stdin) and starts reading the file. It sends the bytes of content read to its normal stdout, which is the same device and terminal as the shell uses. When cat finishes, it just dies neatly, and the shell resumes and waits for more user input. The illusion is that the shell and cat are somehow integrated. They're not.

You can, with a little planning, run cat 10 times in parallel, and the output from all 10 will appear on the screen mixed together. All 10 are writing to the same device. The "wall" command takes advantage of this.

If you run your shell inside a terminal emulator on a GUI desktop, like xterm under GNOME, then the explanation's the same, except that the terminal emulator isn't a real terminal like a physical console. It's a program pretending to be a terminal.

Ken Milberg

Ken Milberg offers argument options for use with "cat"

The cat command allows you to view, modify or combine a file, depending upon what (if any) flags you are using. In this case, you are just viewing the contents of the specified file to the screen (standard output). If the file you are attempting to view is not in text format, you will get a bunch of gibberish. For certain types of files, especially core files, the strings command will be of more use to you.

Some other options for the cat command are as follows:

  • -n: Add line numbers to output.
  • -b: Add line numbers to output but do not number blank lines.
  • -v: Display nonprinting and control characters.
  • -e: Print a dollar sign ($) at the end of each line of output. Must be used with the -v option.
  • -t: Print a ^I for each tab and ^L for each form feed. Must be used with the -v option.
  • -s: On most systems this option causes cat not to print error messages about non-existent files. On some older systems -s causes cat to skip blank lines in the output.
  • -u: Do not buffer output. By default, output is buffered in blocks or screen lines.
For more information, check out "Stupid cat tricks" on
This was last published in September 2004

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