OLTP (online transaction processing) is a class of software programs capable of supporting transaction-oriented applications on the Internet.
Typically, OLTP systems are used for order entry, financial transactions, customer relationship management (CRM) and retail sales. Such systems have a large number of users who conduct short transactions. Database queries are usually simple, require sub-second response times and return relatively few records.
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An important attribute of an OLTP system is its ability to maintain concurrency. To avoid single points of failure, OLTP systems are often decentralized.
IBM's CICS (Customer Information Control System) is a well-known OLTP product.
Learn how SQL Server 2014 leverages in-memory OLTP technology